Archive for May, 2011

May 11, 2011

Unique in All The Universe

by Jerry Bergman, Ph.D

The Earth

A brief glance at the Earth compared to all other known planets reveals many contrasts. Even from outer space the Earth stands in stark contrast to the other 7 planets in our solar system. The Earth is a welcoming bright blue and white in color, whereas all of the other planets (and their satellites) are a forbidding red, orange, or dull gray. Furthermore our Earth is the only planet circling our sun on which life as we know it could (and does) exist.

The Earth as a planet consists mostly of oxygen, iron, sulfur, silicon, magnesium, aluminum, calcium, hydrogen, and nickel (total: 98%), with the other two percent consisting of about a hundred other elements. Like no other planet, ours is covered with green vegetation, enormous blue-green oceans containing over a million islands, hundreds of thousands of streams and rivers, huge land masses called continents, mountains, ice caps, and deserts that produce a spectacular variety of color and texture. Except for occasional violent catastrophes, all other known planets are covered with lifeless soil or gas that varies only according to slight movements made by wind or mild air currents. Completely barren, the surface of most planets is totally in contrast to the Earth’s lively colors–its bright greens, blues, and whites–whereas the surface of all other known rockey planets are rather dull gray and brown often covered with a thick atmosphere.

Some type of life is found in virtually every ecological niche on the Earth’s surface. Even in the extremely cold Antarctica, hardy microscopic beings thrive in ponds, tiny wingless insects live in patches of moss and lichen, and plants that grow and flower yearly. From the apex of the atmosphere to the bottom of the oceans, from the coldest part of the poles to the warmest part of the equator, life thrives here. To this day no evidence of life has been found on any other planet.

The Earth is immense in size–8,000 miles in diameter with a mass calculated at roughly 6.6 x 1021 tons. The Earth is on average 93 million miles from the sun. If the Earth traveled much faster in its 584-million-mile-long journey around the sun, its orbit would become larger and it would move farther away from the sun. If it moved too far from the narrow habitable zone, all life would cease to exist on Earth. If it traveled slightly slower in its orbit, the Earth would move closer to the sun, and if it moved too close, all life would likewise perish.

The Earth’s 365-day-6-hour-49-minute-and-9.54-second-round-trip around the sun (the sidereal year) is consistent to over a thousandth of a second! If the yearly average temperature on Earth’s surface changed by only a few degrees or so, much life on it would eventually roast or freeze. This change would upset the water-ice and other critical balances–with disastrous results. If it rotated slower on its axis, all life would die in time, either by freezing at night because of lack of heat from the sun or by burning during the day from too much heat.

The Sun

Of all the energy the sun gives off, only 0.45 billionth of its daily output strikes the Earth. The sun provides the eEarth with energy estimated at over 239 trillion horsepower, about 35,000 horsepower for each current resident. Even though there likely exists several hundred billion galaxies in the universe, each with a 100 billion stars, there is only one atom for every 88 gallons of space, which means the vast majority of the universe is empty space!

If the Moon was much larger or nearer to Earth, the huge tides that would result would overflow onto the lowlands and erode the mountains. If the continents were leveled, it is estimated that water would cover the entire surface to the depth of over a mile! If the Earth was not tilted 23° on its axis, but rather was on a 90° angle in reference to the sun, we would not have four seasons. Without seasons, life would soon not be able to exist on Earth–the poles would lie in eternal twilight, and water vapor from the oceans would be carried by the wind towards both the north and south, freezing when it moved close enough to the poles. In time, huge continents of snow and ice would pile up in the polar regions, leaving most of the Earth a dry desert. The oceans would eventually disappear, and rainfall would cease. The accumulated weight of ice at the poles would cause the equator to bulge, and, as a result, the earth’s rotation would drastically change.

The Miracle of Water

Another example that illustrates the rigidity of environmental variations necessary for life to exist is that of water. The Earth is the only known planet with huge bodies of water–70% of its surface area consists of oceans, lakes, and seas surrounding huge bodies of land. The few planets that have water contain only moisture floating as vapor on their surface or small amounts of ice or liquid water on the planet itself, not large bodies of liquid water as on Earth.

Water is unique in that it can absorb enormous amounts of heat without a large alteration in its temperature. Its heat absorption level is about ten times as great as steel. During the day, the Earth’s bodies of water rapidly soak up enormous amounts of heat; thus, the Earth stays fairly cool. At night, they release the vast amounts of heat that they absorbed during the day, which, combined with atmospheric effects, keeps most of the surface from freezing solid at night. If it were not for the tremendous amount of water on the Earth, far greater day and night temperature variations would exist. Many parts of the surface would be hot enough to boil water during the day, and the same parts would be cold enough to freeze water at night. Because water is an excellent temperature stabilizer, the large oceans on Earth are vital for life to exist on Earth.

The large amount of water on the Earth can create problems, though. Most all materials expand when heated and contract when cooled. Thus, given two objects of the same size and material, if one is cooler, it will be denser. This may not seem like a problem, but it would be a serious problem in the case of water if it were not for a rare anomaly.

Water, as almost all other substances, contracts when cooled, but, in contrast to virtually all other materials (the rare exceptions include rubber and antimony), it contracts when cooled only until it reaches 4° Celsius; then it–amazingly–expands until it freezes. If water continued to contract when cooled, as do most all other substances, it would become denser and, as a result, would sink to the ocean bottom. Furthermore, when water turned to ice, it would likewise sink to the bottom of the ocean. In time, more and more of the ocean bottom would become ice as more surface water froze, sank, and accumulated at the bottom.

Thus, because of this anomaly, the ice that forms in seas, oceans, and lakes stays near the surface where the sun heats it during the day and the warm water below melts it in the summer. This and the Coriolis effect that produces ocean currents insure that most of the ocean stays in a liquid form, allowing the myriads of water creatures to live and demonstrating that “The Lord by wisdom hath founded the Earth; by understanding hath He established the heavens” (Proverbs 3:19).

The Miracle of Air

On the land, the opposite occurs. The air close to the Earth’s surface is heated by light energy from the sun, and after the air is warmed it becomes less dense and rises upward. The result is that the air near the Earth’s surface maintains a temperature in which life can exist. If air contracted when heated and became denser, the temperature on the Earth’s surface would become unbearable–and most life could not survive for very long. The temperature a few hundred feet above the surface, on the other hand, would be extremely cold, and most life could also not exist there for very long. The only habitable region would be a thin slice of air, but even here life could not exist for long because plants and trees necessary to support life in the atmosphere could not survive, as they would be in the cold zone. Thus birds would have no resting place or food, water, or oxygen. But because air on the Earth’s surface rises when heated, life can exist on the Earth.

The movement of warm air from the surface rising upward creates air currents (wind), which are an important part of the Earth’s ecological system. They carry away carbon dioxide from areas that overproduce, such as cities, and move oxygen to areas in need of it, such as the large urban population centers.

The mixture of gases usually found in the atmosphere not contaminated by human pollution is perfect for life. If it were much different (say 17% instead of 21% oxygen, too little carbon dioxide, etc., or the atmospheric pressure was much higher or lower), life would cease to exist on Earth. If our atmosphere were much thinner, many of the millions of meteors that now are burned up would reach the Earth’s surface, causing death, destruction, and fires everywhere.

Adaptation to Environment or Creation of Environment for Life?

If evolution works to evolve life to fit the existing environments, why has it not equally conquered all of the various environments here and elsewhere? Earth is far better suited for life than any other planet, yet even here most of the environments are either too hot or too cold, too far underground or too far above ground to support much life. In the many thousands of miles of changing environments from the center of the Earth to the edge of its atmosphere, there are only a few meters of habitable environment for most life forms, and therefore, almost all creatures are forced to live there. Although in our solar system only the Earth was made to be inhabited (Isaiah 45:18), even on the Earth only a thin slice is ideally suited for most life-forms including those we are most familiar with, such as mammals, birds, and reptiles.

This thin section, though, is teeming with life. It is estimated that an acre of typical farm soil, six inches deep, has several tons of living bacteria, almost a ton of fungi, two hundred pounds of one-cell protozoan animals, about one hundred pounds of yeast, and the same amount of algae.

Conclusions

The extremely fine line between an environment where life can and cannot exist is illustrated by the fact that it is estimated a five-degree temperature change in the average worldwide temperature would, in time, seriously affect life on the Earth, and much greater temperature change could be disastrous to life. The tolerances are extremely small, and if there are any other planets in the universe, it is unlikely that any of them could have life due to the extremely rigid conditions required for life to exist.

The chances of a planet being the right size, the proper distance away from the right sized star, and the other conditions noted in this article are extremely minute, even if many stars have planets circling them as some speculate. The mathematical odds that all of these and other essential conditions happened by chance are astronomical–something like billions to one!

References

  1. Guillermo, G. and J.W. Richards.  2004. The Privileged Planet : How our Place in the Cosmos is Designed for Discovery. Washington, DC : Regnery.
  2. Ward, P.D. and D. Brownlee. 2000.  Rare Earth : Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe. New York: Copernicus.

(source: ww.icr.org)

Advertisements
May 11, 2011

Does Earth Balance Carbon Dioxide Levels Automatically?

Posted on January 12, 2009 by Brian Thomas, M.S.

A group of German scientists has received clearance from the United Nations to perform a controversial experiment: dumping tons of iron into ocean water.

Source: Vladstudio

Victor Smetacek and his research team from the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, Germany, will test the effects of what Leeds University professor Rob Raiswell, conducting research aboard the British HMS Endurance, discovered—tiny bits of iron in Antarctic glaciers that may play a role in holding the earth’s climate in balance.

As greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide build up in the atmosphere, the earth’s surface temperature rises. This causes glacial ice to melt, which releases iron into ocean water. Iron, in small amounts, is a vital element for life, and in seawater it causes marine algae to bloom. As algae proliferate near the ocean’s surface, they trap carbon dioxide, which could then lead to a reduction in global temperatures. The German scientists will attempt to verify whether the algae, after dying, sink to the bottom of the sea, thereby sequestering carbon dioxide “for several hundred years.”1

Marine bacteria work to maintain a healthy balance of atmospheric methane levels, and methane is a much more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide.2 The role of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in balancing nitrate and nitrite levels is also well-known as the Nitrogen Cycle. It would seem unlikely that these gas-balancing features of the biosphere would interact so effectively with the inorganic environment—thus sustaining life on the planet—by chance. As Raiswell told the Daily Mail, “The Earth itself seems to want to save us.”1

It would not follow that a universe and earth that formed themselves through undirected natural processes would or even could produce these complex ecological interactions that are also specified to maintain an atmosphere necessary for life. However, if God created the heavens and the earth as a place for living things to thrive, it would only make sense for Him to have embedded these natural processes in the planet.

It is not the earth that wants to save us, but God Himself, the Creator of all things, who established the earth and its systems as a unique home for His creatures.3

References

  1. Macfarlane, J. Amazing discovery of green algae which could save the world from global warming. Daily Mail. Posted on dailymail.co.uk January 4, 2009, accessed January 5, 2009.
  2. Thomas, B. A Natural Cause of Greenhouse Gas. ICR News. Posted on icr.org July 16, 2008.
  3. Bergman, J. The Earth: Unique in All the Universe (Updated). Posted on icr.org February 26, 2008.

* Mr. Thomas is Science Writer.

May 11, 2011

Mars Surface Is Even More Hostile Than Ever Was

June 18, 2010 by Brian Thomas, M.S. *

Mars

Hopes of finding life on Mars have been consistently dashed by data clearly showing that the planet’s surface would be extraordinarily hostile to anything resembling a living cell. Scientific studies have demonstrated that conditions there would quickly put an end to any incipient life form.

Mars has virtually no atmosphere, exposing the surface to plenty of unfiltered solar radiation. Its surface temperature is also too cold to sustain living organisms. The oxidized iron that colors the rocks red is hazardous to life. And to add insult to injury, a new study has discovered yet another apparent reason why the red planet remains dead.

Scientists had hoped that methane could have played a role in the spontaneous generation of life on Mars.1 In an effort to explain Mars’ methane, which is sent up in summertime plumes, chemists experimented with some of the chemicals and conditions that exist on the planet’s surface.

The researchers found that sunlight in conjunction with tiny red oxide particles destroys various carbon-containing compounds in the laboratory in what are called “photodegradation” reactions. Among many other parts and parameters, living cells need carbon.

Amino acids and short protein pieces form some of the most vital carbon-containing components of living cells. According to the lab results, on Mars’ surface these small chemical building blocks of life are being efficiently and irreversibly turned into crystalline minerals by combining with metals like iron and forming stable salt compounds. This leaves them totally unavailable to chemically “evolve” into life forms.

The researchers tested other compounds like “kerogen” that, although not found in cells, are carried to Mars’ surface by impacts and theoretically could provide carbon from which life could “emerge.” But these compounds got mineralized, too.

They also found that any light would suffice to accomplish these reactions, not just a special wavelength. Thus far, “the import of our studies is negative” because “the occurrence of this photodegradation is inconsistent with the hypothesis that chemical evolution of the organic component of the soil results in the accumulation of stable…molecules in martian soil.”2

However, they did find that these processes generate methane. Though this may explain the plumes on Mars, methane is one of the simplest and smallest carbon-containing molecules, and is “photolytically unstable (with a half-life that can be as short as 200 days under martian conditions)”2 and could therefore not undergo “chemical evolution” either.

Even if methane did not self-destruct so quickly on Mars, and if it did somehow “evolve” into larger, more significant organic molecules, these would also become locked into minerals through photodegradation.

Overall, “the inescapable conclusion is that the protracted survival of these products is unlikely [because]…a planet that is covered by highly dispersed photocatalyst and generously bathed in UV light is a hostile environment for long-term preservation of organic and bioorganic molecules.”2 And without so much as the survival of the chemical compounds necessary for life, any hypothesis regarding their concentration and organization into some semblance of life by natural means is frankly laughable.

References

  1. Thomas, B. Methane on Mars: The Stuff of Life? ICR News. Posted on icr.org January 19, 2009, accessed June 10, 2010.
  2. Shkrob, I. A., S. D. Chemerisov and T. W. Marin. 2010. Photocatalytic Decomposition of Carboxylated Molecules on Light-Exposed Martian Regolith and Its Relation to Methane Production on Mars. Astrobiology. 10 (4): 425-436.

Image credit: The Viking Project, M. Dale-Bannister WU StL, NASA

* Mr. Thomas is Science Writer at the Institute for Creation Research.

(Source: http://www.icr.org)

May 11, 2011

First Phone in the U.S. Constructed from Eco-friendly Bio-plastic Materials Made From Corn

Available for less than $50, Samsung Reclaim is the most full-featured eco-friendly phone in the U.S; Purchases of Samsung Reclaim benefit The Nature Conservancy’s Adopt an Acre program
Sprint retail stores to feature green products and services section; Sustainable design blueprint announced for future Sprint-owned store builds and refurbishments

Overland Park, Kan. and Dallas – Aug. 6, 2009 – Sprint (NYSE: S) is making it easier than ever for customers to “go green” with new eco-friendly products, services and programs and expanding its commitment as a leader in sustainability. Available on Aug. 16, Sprint and Samsung Telecommunications America (Samsung Mobile), the #1 mobile phone provider in the U.S1, today announced Samsung Reclaim™ as the first phone in the U.S. constructed from eco-friendly bio-plastic materials. Made from 80 percent recyclable materials, Samsung Reclaim is a feature-rich messaging phone that offers environmentally conscious customers a perfect blend of responsibility without sacrificing the latest in network speeds and must-have features.

Reclaim is the most full-featured QWERTY phone launched by Sprint at less than $50. It will be available on August 16 in all Sprint retail channels, including Best Buy, Radio Shack, Web (www.sprint.com) and telesales (1-800-SPRINT1) for just $49.99 with a two-year service agreement after a $30 instant rebate and a $50 mail-in rebate (Taxes and service charges excluded.) It will be available at Wal-Mart in early September.

When customers purchase Samsung Reclaim from Sprint, $2 of the proceeds will benefit the Nature Conservancy’s Adopt an Acre program, which supports land conservation across the United States and protects some of the world’s most beautiful and important natural habitats.

“This generous donation from Sprint will help us protect and restore some of America’s most beautiful and ecologically-important landscapes for future generations to enjoy,” said Mark Tercek, president and CEO of The Nature Conservancy. “We applaud Sprint’s sustainability efforts, as innovation and new technology are crucial to the future of conservation.”

Sprint is also launching several new environmental initiatives in an effort to support its aggressive long-term environmental goals:

* Sprint is the first U.S. wireless carrier to establish a set of environmental design criteria for future devices and accessories.
* Sprint is implementing a series of new environmentally-responsible retail initiatives including adding a dedicated display area in stores that highlights Sprint’s commitment to eco-friendly products and accessories.
* Sprint is committing to reduce paper usage by 30 percent during the next five years.

“Sprint is widely recognized as a leader among telecommunications companies in environmentally-responsible initiatives, and today we are proud to announce an even stronger commitment to sustainability with new eco-friendly products and programs,” said Dan Hesse, Sprint CEO. “Samsung Reclaim enables customers to go green while getting the latest in wireless technology. When customers walk into a Sprint retail store, they will be greeted by the information they need to make earth-friendly wireless choices, coupled with Ready Now to learn about the rich functionality of this device.”

DEFINING GREEN WITH SAMSUNG RECLAIM
An eco-friendly overachiever, Samsung Reclaim from Sprint is designed with environmentally-responsible components and fully recyclable packaging, making it the perfect wireless phone for the eco-conscious consumer.

* Its bio-plastic material, made from corn makes up 40 percent of the Reclaim’s outer casing. Samsung Reclaim is free of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), phthalates, and nearly free of brominated flame retardants (BFR): three materials commonly targeted on green electronics guidelines.
* The outer packaging and the phone tray inside the box are made from 70 percent recycled materials. The images and text on the box as well as the phone warranty information are printed with soy-based ink.
* The typical thick paper user manual has been replaced with a virtual manual that users can access at http://www.sprint.com/reclaimsupport.
* The charger is Energy Star approved for meeting the highest energy efficiency standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy. It consumes 12 times less power than the Energy Star standard for standby power consumption and is equipped with a visible notification to alert the user to unplug the handset once it’s fully charged.

“Samsung Reclaim is more than just an eco-centric device, it’s also a powerful and stylish phone that’s easy-to-use,” said Omar Khan, senior vice president of Strategy and Product Management for Samsung Mobile. “When you combine the Reclaim’s impressive feature set with its bio-plastic hardware and eco-centric packaging, you’re using a phone that is good for you and the environment.”

Operating on America’s most dependable 3G network2, Samsung Reclaim boasts One Click, Sprint’s award-winning customizable user interface with quick access to such social networks as Facebook, MySpace, Twitter and YouTube. A new green One Click tile makes its debut on Reclaim providing the gateway to several green applications including:

* Five Simple Steps from Discovery Channel provides five simple changes you can make to be more eco-friendly, from how you commute to what you eat for dinner;
* Green Guides from Discovery Channel offers handy guides to help you green your lives with ease, and understand why;
* Green Glossary from Discovery Channel provides words and explanations about the Earth and Climate Change; and
* All Things Green, a Sprint Web category contains dynamic green headlines and links to downloadable content.

Customers don’t have to sacrifice the latest in technology to be environmentally-friendly with Reclaim. The stylish, full-featured phone offers:

* a slide-out full QWERTY keyboard making it easy to access personal or corporate email as well as text and multimedia messaging;
* Sprint Navigation with Search, providing easy access to directory information and GPS-enabled directions;
* 2 megapixel camera with 3x digital zoom and camcorder;
* advanced stereo Bluetooth® 2.0;
* expandable memory storage up to 32GB;
* an integrated Web browser; and
* two color options – Earth Green and Ocean Blue.

Sprint currently offers more eco-friendly accessories than any other U.S. telecommunications company. In May, Sprint announced the availability of new eco-friendly accessories, including the SOLIO Mono solar-powered charger and two new cell-phone carrying cases made from 100 percent recycled plastic water bottles.

Sprint’s green-themed website, http://www.sprint.com/green, details Sprint’s green mobile applications and helps customers learn about Sprint’s sustainability initiatives, including online bill pay, wireless recycling programs and acquiring green tips, such as using mobile GPS to calculate the quickest route to save gas. Customers can receive Sprint updates on specific company-wide environmentally-responsible initiatives on Twitter via @SprintGreenNews and can visit http://www.sprint.com/green for additional green tips.

GREENING SPRINT RETAIL STORES AND PRODUCTS
Beginning in September, all Sprint-owned retail locations will feature a new dedicated environmentally-responsible section that highlights eco-friendly products and accessories such as the SOLIO Solar Charger and carrying cases made from recycled materials. Sprint also will implement a new sustainable design blueprint for all future Sprint owned retail store builds and refurbishments.

New and refurbished stores will implement numerous sustainable design elements consistent with LEED design standards, and will include energy-efficient lighting, low water usage plumbing fixtures and low VOC paint and carpet. The roll out of these energy efficiency upgrades is expected to reduce the carbon footprint of each store by about 19,000 pounds of carbon dioxide equivalents.

Sprint’s Environmental Product Design Criteria Vision Statement applies to all products sold in Sprint channels. Sprint will work with its device and accessory suppliers to design and provide products that:

* Reduce the use of potentially hazardous materials,
* Are energy efficient,
* Include standardized audio and charging interfaces,
* Are more recyclable, and
* Have more sustainable packaging including standardized sizes, reduced weight, increased recyclability rate, and increased recycled content.

Sprint also will work with its suppliers to measure and report on the environmental impact of their manufacturing processes.

LEADING IN SUSTAINABILITY

Wireless Recycling

* Sprint is the industry leader in the reuse and recycling of wireless devices sold. Sprint has an aggressive industry-first goal of reaching a 90 percent phone collection rate for reuse/recycling compared with annual wireless device sales by 2017.
* Since 2001, Sprint wireless recycling programs have diverted more than 17 million cell phones from landfills for reuse or recycling. Sprint’s current collection rate is just under 35 percent, more than three times the national recycling average.
* Sprint is a member of the U.S Environmental Protection Agency’s Plug-In To eCycling Program.

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Efforts

* Sprint has committed to reduce its GHG emissions by 15 percent by 2017 and to increase its use of renewable energy to 10 percent by 2017. In fall 2007, Sprint became the first wireless provider to join the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Climate Leaders Program.
* Sprint is the only U.S.-based wireless telecom to have a published GHG reduction target. In 2008, just its first year of measurement and reporting, Sprint achieved a 6.8 percent reduction moving from 2.18M metric tons of GHG emissions to 2.03M metric tons.

Green Energy Use

* Sprint is an industry leader in the purchase of green energy and is at the forefront of using renewable energy sources such as Hydrogen. Sprint ranks #20 on the EPA’s Green Power Partnership Fortune 500 list.
* Wind power provides approximately 75 percent of the energy needed to run Sprint’s Overland Park, Kan. corporate headquarters.
* Sprint recently received a $7.3 million grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to expand its use of hydrogen fuel cells as backup power for cell sites. An industry leader, Sprint has deployed more than 250 hydrogen fuel cell generators across its wireless network and has received 12 patents from the U.S. Patent Office that include hydrogen fuel cells.

SAMSUNG’S CONTINUED COMMITTMENT
Reclaim is Samsung’s latest contribution toward its commitment to the environment. Samsung Electronics Co. was recently named as the second highest rated company in Greenpeace International’s Guide to Greener Electronics scorecard. The research rates electronics manufacturers on reducing the climate impacts of products and operations, responsible recycling and takeback of unwanted electronics and the elimination of toxic materials from the products themselves.

Samsung recently adopted a new green management initiative with comprehensive goals intended to make Samsung a leading eco-friendly company by 2013. The “Eco-Management 2013” plan includes commitments to:

* Reduce greenhouse gas emissions normalized by sales* from manufacturing facilities by 50 percent and cut total indirect greenhouse gas emissions from all products by 84 million tons,
* Ensure 100 percent of Samsung’s products are eco-friendly and exceed global eco-mark standards, and
* Invest $4.3 billion in various eco-management initiatives and enhance green partnerships with suppliers and partners.

Samsung’s Mobile Take Back Program™ is part of the Samsung Recycling Direct SM initiative. The Samsung Mobile Take-Back Program™ recycles end-of-life mobile devices by processing them to be reused as resources for manufacturers. The Samsung Mobile Take-Back Program is leading the effort to create a recycle-based society by distributing 100 percent recyclable mobile recycling envelopes made out of high density polyethylene. To find out more information on the Samsung Recycling Direct and Samsung Mobile Take-Back program please visit, http://www.samsung.com/recyclingdirect.

Since June 2008, Samsung’s Customer Care Center has recycled 635 tons of cardboard, which has saved more than 10,700 trees, 38,000 pounds of air particles, 4.4 million gallons of water, 2.6 million kilowatts of electricity and 1905 cubic yards of landfill space.

BEST BUY JOINS IN GOING GREEN
Sprint partner Best Buy’s and its Greener Togethertm initiative helps customers make smarter decisions about technology and energy use. Through Greener Together, Best Buy helps customers choose electronics and appliances wisely and use them more efficiently, plus find easy ways to recycle, reuse, or trade in products at the end of their life.

Best Buy recently began offering electronics recycling at all of its 1,036 stores nationwide including televisions, monitors, computer CPUs and notebooks, small electronics, VCRs, DVD and more. The program is the latest addition to the electronics and appliance recycling options Best Buy offers to consumers nationwide including recycling kiosks, appliance and television haul-away, appliance and television pick-up and Tech Trade-In. Visit http://www.bestbuy.com/green for more information.

About Sprint Nextel
Sprint Nextel offers a comprehensive range of wireless and wireline communications services bringing the freedom of mobility to consumers, businesses and government users. Sprint Nextel is widely recognized for developing, engineering and deploying innovative technologies, including two wireless networks serving almost 49 million customers at the end of the second quarter of 2009; industry-leading mobile data services; instant national and international push-to-talk capabilities; and a global Tier 1 Internet backbone. The company’s customer-focused strategy has led to improved first call resolution and customer care satisfaction scores. For more information, visit http://www.sprint.com.

About Samsung Telecommunications America
Samsung Telecommunications America, LLC, a Dallas-based subsidiary of Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., researches, develops and markets wireless handsets and telecommunications products throughout North America. For more information, please visit http://www.samsungmobileusa.com.

About Samsung Electronics
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. is a global leader in semiconductor, telecommunication, digital media and digital convergence technologies with 2008 consolidated sales of US$96 billion. Employing approximately 164,600 people in 179 offices across 61 countries, the company consists of two business units: Digital Media & Communications and Device Solutions. Recognized as one of the fastest growing global brands, Samsung Electronics is a leading producer of digital TVs, memory chips, mobile phones and TFT-LCDs. For more information, please visit http://www.samsung.com.

###

1. Based upon reported shipment data from Strategy Analytics Q1 2009 U.S. Market Share Handset Shipments Report.
2. “Dependable” based on independent, third-party drive tests for 3G data connection success, session reliability and signal strength for the top 50 most populous markets from January 2008 to February 2009. Not all services available on 3G and coverage may default to separate network when 3G unavailable.

EDITOR’S NOTE:
VISIT WWW.SPRINT.COM/NEWSROOM or WWW.SPRINT.COM/PRESSKITS FOR MORE INFORMATION

(Source: Samsung)

May 11, 2011

“I am NOT a plastic cup”

LOS ANGELES, Oct. 15 /PRNewswire/ — Repurpose Compostables, Inc.®, a full service bioplastic manufacturing, sales and distribution company based in Los Angeles, announced today the debut of their brand new line of PLA cold cups and PLA cutlery at incredibly competitive prices. Repurpose products are high performance and can withstand heats of up to 220 degrees, however are able to biodegrade in 90 days. Repurpose products are also non-toxic, keeping harmful chemicals out of our food supply, environment and oceans. Repurpose Compostables, Inc. will also serve as one stop shopping for anyone in the food and beverage industry looking to transition off of petroleum based products to plant based, compostable alternatives, offering a full range of products including food carriers, hot cups, plates and napkins. Additionally, Repurpose is working with various businesses and municipalities to retrofit existing plastic based products with plant based alternatives. Check out the full line of products at: http://www.repurposenow.com

(Photo: http://www.newscom.com/cgi-bin/prnh/20091015/LA93418-a)

“After two years of development, it is with extreme excitement that we bring the Repurpose products to market this month,” said Lauren Gropper, Chief Executive Officer of Repurpose Compostables, Inc. “Having worked in the green industry for ten years, I found there was not a wide variety or a high enough quality product out there, so we set out to make one. We feel that this market is severely underserved and as consumers continue to flock to businesses offering green alternatives, this market is going to continue to grow. More and more businesses want to switch over from using petroleum based plastics and non sustainable products and we will serve as a conduit for that change.”

As prices of petroleum continue to rise and the nation moves to get itself off of foreign oil, the time has come to change. Repurpose products meet the ASTM D6400 standard for compostability. A piece of plastic can take 700 years to decompose, and even then leaches toxic chemicals into the soil, where as Repurpose products can decompose in 90 days in. Also as plastic enters the oceans it breaks down into toxic sludge being eaten by our plankton, fish, and eventually, us. Americans are essentially eating their own, already disposed of plastic. Repurpose products are also the perfect cradle to cradle product as PLA does not downgrade when it is recycled, creating an infinite loop system in which the product can be recycled from its original resin endlessly. Making compostable products from plants uses 3-4 times less C02 then petroleum based products, as well as creates a simple yet significant way for businesses and consumers to help fight global warming. Repurpose will offset all of its carbon costs through Carbon Fund.org, making their products a zero carbon purchase.

Repurpose products were debuted at the 2009 Sundance Film Festival and have already been used on the set of the HBO series Entourage. Repurpose was founded by sustainable design consultant and green activist Lauren Gropper and humanitarian activist Jeff Toolan with the goal of fundamentally changing the way that businesses and consumers think about their disposable products. Repurpose is working in conjunction with non-profits such as The American Democracy Institute (www.empowerchange.org) to make smart and meaningful differences in the environment, and to engage governments in changing the composting and recycling programs in the United States.

About PLA:

Poly Lactic Acid is a renewable plant based material, produced from the fermentation of starch from crops, (most commonly cornstarch or sugarcane in the United States), into lactic acid that is then polymerized. Its blends are used in a wide range of applications including computer and mobile phone casings, foil, biodegradable medical implants, moulds, tins, cups, bottles and other packaging.

About Lauren Gropper, Co-Founder and CEO:

As Principal and founder of Lauren Gropper Consulting, Gropper has consulted on over 35 green building projects between New York, Toronto, and California for clients such as Gensler, British Petroleum, Beckman Coulter, and the American Cancer Society. Gropper was also the eco-host and consultant to HGTV’s Green Force and executive green consultant for Planet Green’s Alter Eco, Presented by Adrian Grenier (Discovery Communications). A LEED® Accredited Professional since 2002, Gropper has a Master of Science in Environmental Planning and Design from New York’s Pratt Institute School of Architecture. Gropper is an Adjunct Professor at the Pratt Institute. Gropper is also a frequent guest lecturer, at the City University of New York (CUNY). Gropper recently won two international sustainable design competitions and has been a featured speaker at the Green Living Show, NeoCon//IIDEX, and Brooklyn Designs.

About Jeff Toolan, Co-Founder

Jeff Toolan is principle and founder of ISIS BY Design, LLC, parent company of Multeepurpose® Clothing Co, a leader of socially and ecologically conscious apparel. Toolan earned his B.A. from UCLA with a focus on International Relations and economics, and was a recipient of the US State Department’s Fulbright Fellowship in 2007. Toolan is also a Fellow in the International Human Rights Consortium and Graduate of the University of Geneva’s Graduate Institute of International Studies (HEI) in Switzerland. In addition to a diverse educational background, he brings well over a decade of experience in the business world with management experiences in a variety of hospitality, manufacturing, marketing and technology companies.

SOURCE Repurpose Compostables, Inc.